Around 10,100 people are diagnosed with bladder cancer each year in the UK.
For ’superficial’ bladder cancer, wart-like cancers are removed by surgery initially.
In cases with a higher risk of recurrence, a bacteria known as Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) may be injected into the bladder to reduce the risk of the cancer returning. However, this is associated with significant side effects.
The cancer has a propensity to re-grow, so patients are on life-long surveillance.
Aggressive, progressive cancers may require surgically removing the bladder in an operation known as a cystectomy.
Current treatment with BCG dates back to the 1970s, has not progressed, is inadequate and has potentially severe side effects.
A new, more effective, better tolerated treatment is urgently needed.